• Lumturije Kurtishaj University of Tetova, North Macedonia




This paper aims to provide a historical analysis of the Albanian canon and blood feud from the pre-Ottoman period to the present day, examining the various factors that have influenced their development over time.

Relying on a variety of primary and secondary sources, this research shows the sustainability of these practices in the face of social, political and legal changes throughout the history of Albania.

Keywords:  Albanian canon, blood feud, the periods of Canon.


Ademi, N., Beadini, A., Iseni, A., & Tembra, J. J. V. (2013). The Impact of the Moral and Legal Foundations of the Albanian Society across Europe and Beyond.

Arburim Iseni, & Rovena (Vata) Mikeli. (2023). ALBANIAN CUSTOMARY LAW, ANGLO-SAXON LAW AND THE OLD WEST: HANDLING THE LAW ON YOUR OWN. Angloamericanae Journal (AAJ), 8(1), 50–58. Retrieved from http://aaj.ielas.org/index.php/Angloamericanae/article/view/25

Barjaba, K., & King, R. (2005). Introducing and theorising the Albanian migration. In K. Barjaba& R. King (Eds.), The new Albanian migration (pp. 1-28). Brighton: Sussex Academic Press.

Elbasani, A., & Lipinski, A. (2018). Blood feuds and state-building: Explaining Albania's backwardness. East European Politics, 34(1), 25-44.

Fischer, B. J. (1999). Albania at war, 1939-1945. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press.

Fisher, B. J. (1999). King Zog and the struggle for stability in Albania. East European Quarterly, 33(3), 315-330.

Krasniqi, G. (2016). The Kanun in contemporary Albania: The paradox of tradition and modernity. In J. Schwandner-Sievers & S. Fischer (Eds.), Albanian Identities: Myth and history (pp. 120-135). London: Hurst & Company.

Pipa, A. (1990). The politics of language in socialist Albania. East European Quarterly, 24(4), 445-467.

Schwartz, D. M. (1992). The Code of LekëDukagjini: A window into Slavic and other pre-modern societies. East European Quarterly, 26(4), 519-527.

Elsie, R. (2010). The Albanian Canon: Myth or Reality? Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 10(2), 155-167.

Hagan, J. (2018). Blood Feud: The Anthropology of Tribal Conflict. University of Pennsylvania Press.

Knaus, V. (2017). Blood Feuds and the Politics of Law and Order in Albania. Ethnopolitics, 16(2), 119-136.

Blumi, I. (2011). Foundations of modernity: Human agency and the imperial state. London: Routledge.

Duka, F. (2004). History of Albania: From its origins to the present day. Tirana: BotimetToena.

Hasluck, M. M. (1954). The unwritten law in Albania. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Iseni, A., Sela, Y., & Beadini, A. (2013). A Comparative Study of Albanian Customary Law with the Code of the West and the Common Law of England Lex Scripta vs. Lex Non Scripta. JL Pol'y & Globalization, 18, 50. Retrieved from


Iseni, A. (2018). Brief Biography of Selami Hallaçi (1919-1944). ANGLISTICUM. Journal of the Association-Institute for English Language and American Studies, 7(2), 9-10. Retrieved from http://www.anglisticum.org.mk/index.php/IJLLIS/article/view/1762

Kaser, K. (1994). Der Kanun: Das albanische Gewohnheitsrechtnach dem sogenannten Kanun des Lekë Dukagjini. Graz: Akademische Drucku. Verlagsanstalt.

Kurti, B., & Iseni, A. (2019). THE UNIQUE POLITICAL ATTRIBUTES OF THE UNITED STATES’ SYSTEM OF GOVERNANCE. Angloamericanae Journal (AAJ), 4(1), 17–28. Retrieved from https://aaj.ielas.org/index.php/Angloamericanae/article/view/27

Kurti, B., & Iseni, A. (2023). The School of Athens, the Philosophical Artwork that Conveys All Human Knowledge. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering & Education (IJCRSEE), 11(1). Retrieved from


DOI: https://doi.org/10.23947/2334-8496-2023-11-1-165-172

Malcolm, N. (1998). Kosovo: A Short History. NEW YORK TIMES BOOK REVIEW, 103, 20-20.

Schmitt, O. J. (2009). Skanderberg: der neue Alexander auf dem Balkan. Pustet.

Pulaha, S. (2014). The Albanian Canon of LekëDukagjini: A Source for the History of the Balkans. European Journal of Social Sciences Education and Research, 1(1), 37-45

Schwandner-Sievers, S. & Fischer, B. J. (2002). Albanian Identities: Myth and History. Indiana University Press.




How to Cite

Kurtishaj, L. (2023). A HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ALBANIAN CANON AND BLOOD FEUD FROM THE OTTOMAN PERIOD TO THE PRESENT DAY. ANGLISTICUM. Journal of the Association-Institute for English Language and American Studies, 12(9), pp.11–15. https://doi.org/10.58885/ijllis.v12i9.11lk



Volume 12, No.9, September 2023