• Ermal Simaku Ophthalmologist, EYE clinic, University Hospital ”Mother Theresa” Tirana
  • Brisilda Danaj Ophthalmologist, International Clinic, Tirana



Globally, age-related macular degeneration, or AMD, is the primary cause of irreversible vision loss. It has 2 late-stage manifestations, which may coexist: a nonneo-vascular form known as geographic atrophy and a neovascular form characterized by the presence of macular neovascularization, previously known as choroidal neovascularization. Risk factors for AMD may be nonmodifiable (eg, age) or modifiable (eg, cigarette smoking and low micronutrient intake).  According to multiple genome-wide association studies, genetic factors account for at least 55% of total AMD risk, and the pathway most consistently implicated in AMD is the complement cascade. For exudative AMD, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents are the cornerstone of care and are typically administered using 1 of 3 broad approaches: fixed-interval dosing, as-needed dosing, or treat-and-extend dosing. In addition to AMD, multiple retinal pathologies may lead to choroidal neovascularization; these distinct exudative diseases are also frequently managed with antivascular endothelial growth factor drugs. Case report: We describe three months of treatment with three intavitrealaflibercept (EYLEA) in two cases of ARMD with macular edema. Following each injection, the visual acuity (VA) increased in both of the cases.  The purpose of this article is to review how anti-VEGF medications affect macular edema and help ARMD patients see better.

Keywords: ARMD; macular edema, coroidalneovascularisation, visual acuity, anti-VEGF treatment.


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How to Cite

Simaku, E., & Danaj, B. (2023). THE EFFECTS OF INTRAVITREAL ANTI-VEGF INJECTION ON THE MACULAR EDEMA AND VISUAL ACUITY OF PATIENTS WITH WET ARMD. ANGLISTICUM. Journal of the Association-Institute for English Language and American Studies, 12(9), pp.37–46.



Volume 12, No.9, September 2023