• Rilind Mahmudi Faculty of Human Sciences. Mother Teresa University in Skopje, North Macedonia
  • Majlinda Ismaili Mahmudi Faculty of Human Sciences. Mother Teresa University in Skopje, North Macedonia
  • Edona Vinca




Empty subject expressed with existential ‘there’ has confounded English linguists for a longer period of time. While some grammarians do not consider existential ‘there’ as real subject, Jespersen was the first to recognize and call it a ‘lesser subject’. Huddleston and Quirk argue that ‘there’ is subject of existential sentences. On the other hand, there is no subject when we translate simple sentences from English to Albanian language with existential ‘there’. In fact, such translated sentences start with a predicate. Existential ‘there’ and concord between the subject and predicate is also analyzed in this study. There are different examples where existential ‘there’ as subject takes a singular or a plural verb depending on the object in English language. There is a similar situation with the predicate in Albanian language when objects have an influence on the verb number. There are some differences, however, when existential ‘there’ is not in concord with some translated sentences in Albanian language. The second part of this study is focused on a questionnaire filled by students who had to choose between two given options, a singular or a plural verb with existential ‘there’ as the subject of the sentence for translated sentences from English to Albanian language.

Keywords: Empty subject, existential ‘there’, verb, concord, English language, Albanian language.

Author Biographies

Rilind Mahmudi, Faculty of Human Sciences. Mother Teresa University in Skopje, North Macedonia

Rilind Mahmudi is a highly educated and experienced Assistant Professor of Linguistics. He has a PhD in Linguistics from the University "Aleksander Xhuvani" in Elbasan, Albania and a Master's Degree in English Language from the State University of Tetova, Tetova, North Macedonia. He is fluent in English and Macedonian and also has excellent communication, organizational, and management skills.He is currently serving at the Faculty of Social Sciences, University "Mother Teresa" in Skopje, North Macedonia as an Assistant Professor and Vice Dean of Education. Prior to his current position, he was the Head of the Department of European Studies & Balkan and Eurasian Studies, Coordinator of the Office for Education and Associate for the development of new curricula. He was teaching assistant for nine years at the State University of Tetova teaching different subjects at the department of English Language and Literature. Rilind has a strong background in teaching, including being an English language teacher, and has experience translating different texts from English to Albanian and Macedonian. He has translated four books from English/Macedonian to Albanian language. Rilind has been active in publishing scientific papers in linguistics, including participation in nine international and national conferences and seven papers in different international journals. He has participated in different workshops and seminars on different topics. One of his most important achievements is the participation in the International Visitor Leadership Program in USA.

Majlinda Ismaili Mahmudi, Faculty of Human Sciences. Mother Teresa University in Skopje, North Macedonia

Majlinda Ismaili-Mahmudi was born on July 10th, 1986 in Skopje, North Macedonia. She completed her primary education at the "Cyril and Methodius" primary school in Tetovo and went on to pursue her secondary education at the "NikollaShtejn" high school in Tetovo. Majlinda later went on to receive her Bachelor's degree in English Language and Literature from the State University of Tetova and then continued to receive her Master's degree in English Language from the same university. Her Master's thesis was “The use of prepositions "in," "at," and "on" in the English language and the difficulties that Albanian students face while learning them.” Majlinda continued her academic journey by obtaining a PhD in Linguistics from the Faculty of Human Sciences at the University of Elbasan in Albania. Her doctoral thesis was “Anglicisms, their place and use in Albanian language of Albanians in North Macedonia.” In addition to her academic achievements, Majlinda has also had a successful professional career. She has worked as a teacher of English at the "RexhëRushitZajazi" primary school, “Drita” high school in Kichevo, a translator at Missioni Company in Tetovo, and as an expert of English language at the Employment Agency of North Macedonia. Currently, Majlinda is part-time professor of English language at “Mother Teresa” University in Skopje and teacherof English at the "RexhëRushitZajazi" primary school in Zajas, North Macedonia. She is also a mentor at the same school, helping teachers improve their teaching skills.

Edona Vinca

Edona Vinca holds a doctoral degree in Linguistics from the Philology Faculty at the Ss Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje. The author’s main scope of research lies within the fields of pragmatics and discourse analysis, but she has also tackled several elements within applied linguistics as well as contrastive analysis. Her work mainly deals with contrastive analysis of discourse particles in spoken interaction in English, Albanian and Macedonian languages. The author joined the staff of Mother Teresa University in Skopje in 2017 as a Teaching Assistant and since 2021 holds the position of Assistant Professor.


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How to Cite

Mahmudi, R., Mahmudi, M. I., & Vinca, E. (2023). EMPTY SUBJECT (EXISTENTIAL ‘THERE’) AND CONCORD IN ENGLISH AND ALBANIAN LANGUAGE. ANGLISTICUM. Journal of the Association-Institute for English Language and American Studies, 12(7), pp.49–56. https://doi.org/10.58885/ijllis.v12i7.49rm



Volume 12, No.7, July 2023

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